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Find odd man out sodium aluminium chlorine carbon

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By using this site, you consent to the use of cookies. You can refuse to use cookies by setting the necessary parameters in your browser. English , Sodium, aluminium, chlorine ,carbon. Answers: 3. Ya we should reduce expenses because as the price will b low so the customers will attract because they use to cheap and best and when they will attract it will make a profit if you liked my answer so plz give a.

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Sodium, aluminium, chlorine ,carbon. find odd man out and give reason

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Chlorine is a chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number The second-lightest of the halogens , it appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between them. Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent : among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity on the Pauling scale, behind only oxygen and fluorine.

The most common compound of chlorine, sodium chloride common salt , has been known since ancient times. Around , chlorine gas was first synthesised in a chemical reaction, but not recognised as a fundamentally important substance. Carl Wilhelm Scheele wrote a description of chlorine gas in , supposing it to be an oxide of a new element.

Because of its great reactivity, all chlorine in the Earth's crust is in the form of ionic chloride compounds, which includes table salt. It is the second-most abundant halogen after fluorine and twenty-first most abundant chemical element in Earth's crust. These crustal deposits are nevertheless dwarfed by the huge reserves of chloride in seawater. Elemental chlorine is commercially produced from brine by electrolysis , predominantly in the chlor-alkali process.

The high oxidising potential of elemental chlorine led to the development of commercial bleaches and disinfectants , and a reagent for many processes in the chemical industry. Chlorine is used in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products, about two-thirds of them organic chemicals such as polyvinyl chloride , and many intermediates for the production of plastics and other end products which do not contain the element. As a common disinfectant, elemental chlorine and chlorine-generating compounds are used more directly in swimming pools to keep them clean and sanitary.

Elemental chlorine at high concentrations is extremely dangerous and poisonous for all living organisms. As a chemical warfare agent, chlorine was first used in World War I as a poison gas weapon. In the form of chloride ions , chlorine is necessary to all known species of life. Other types of chlorine compounds are rare in living organisms, and artificially produced chlorinated organics range from inert to toxic. In the upper atmosphere , chlorine-containing organic molecules such as chlorofluorocarbons have been implicated in ozone depletion.

Small quantities of elemental chlorine are generated by oxidation of chloride to hypochlorite in neutrophils as part of the immune response against bacteria. The most common compound of chlorine, sodium chloride, has been known since ancient times; archaeologists have found evidence that rock salt was used as early as BC and brine as early as BC.

Elemental chlorine was probably first isolated around with the discovery of aqua regia and its ability to dissolve gold, since chlorine gas is one of the products of this reaction: it was however not recognised as a new substance. Around , chlorine was recognized as a gas by the Flemish chemist and physician Jan Baptist van Helmont. The element was first studied in detail in by Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele , and he is credited with the discovery.

Scheele observed several of the properties of chlorine: the bleaching effect on litmus , the deadly effect on insects, the yellow-green color, and the smell similar to aqua regia. Common chemical theory at that time held that an acid is a compound that contains oxygen remnants of this survive in the German and Dutch names of oxygen : sauerstoff or zuurstof , both translating into English as acid substance , so a number of chemists, including Claude Berthollet , suggested that Scheele's dephlogisticated muriatic acid air must be a combination of oxygen and the yet undiscovered element, muriaticum.

In , Sir Humphry Davy tried the same experiment again, and concluded that the substance was an element, and not a compound. Chlorine gas was first used by French chemist Claude Berthollet to bleach textiles in The resulting liquid, known as " Eau de Javel " " Javel water " , was a weak solution of sodium hypochlorite. This process was not very efficient, and alternative production methods were sought.

Scottish chemist and industrialist Charles Tennant first produced a solution of calcium hypochlorite "chlorinated lime" , then solid calcium hypochlorite bleaching powder.

Near the end of the nineteenth century, E. Smith patented a method of sodium hypochlorite production involving electrolysis of brine to produce sodium hydroxide and chlorine gas, which then mixed to form sodium hypochlorite.

Elemental chlorine solutions dissolved in chemically basic water sodium and calcium hypochlorite were first used as anti- putrefaction agents and disinfectants in the s, in France, long before the establishment of the germ theory of disease. This practice was pioneered by Antoine-Germain Labarraque , who adapted Berthollet's "Javel water" bleach and other chlorine preparations for a more complete history, see below.

Chlorine gas was first used as a weapon on April 22, , at Ypres by the German Army. Chlorine is the second halogen , being a nonmetal in group 17 of the periodic table. Its properties are thus similar to fluorine , bromine , and iodine , and are largely intermediate between those of the first two. Chlorine has the electron configuration [Ne]3s 2 3p 5 , with the seven electrons in the third and outermost shell acting as its valence electrons.

Like all halogens, it is thus one electron short of a full octet, and is hence a strong oxidising agent, reacting with many elements in order to complete its outer shell. It is also a weaker oxidising agent than fluorine, but a stronger one than bromine.

Conversely, the chloride ion is a weaker reducing agent than bromide, but a stronger one than fluoride. Fluorine is anomalous due to its small size. All four stable halogens experience intermolecular van der Waals forces of attraction, and their strength increases together with the number of electrons among all homonuclear diatomic halogen molecules.

As a result of the increasing molecular weight of the halogens down the group, the density and heats of fusion and vaporisation of chlorine are again intermediate between those of bromine and fluorine, although all their heats of vaporisation are fairly low leading to high volatility thanks to their diatomic molecular structure.

This trend occurs because the wavelengths of visible light absorbed by the halogens increase down the group. Like solid bromine and iodine, solid chlorine crystallises in the orthorhombic crystal system , in a layered lattice of Cl 2 molecules.

This structure means that chlorine is a very poor conductor of electricity, and indeed its conductivity is so low as to be practically unmeasurable. Chlorine has two stable isotopes, 35 Cl and 37 Cl. Both are synthesised in stars in the oxygen-burning and silicon-burning processes. The other chlorine isotopes are all radioactive, with half-lives too short to occur in nature primordially.

The most stable chlorine radioisotope is 36 Cl. The primary decay mode of isotopes lighter than 35 Cl is electron capture to isotopes of sulfur ; that of isotopes heavier than 37 Cl is beta decay to isotopes of argon ; and 36 Cl may decay by either mode to stable 36 S or 36 Ar. In the top meter of the lithosphere, 36 Cl is generated primarily by thermal neutron activation of 35 Cl and spallation of 39 K and 40 Ca. In the subsurface environment, muon capture by 40 Ca becomes more important as a way to generate 36 Cl.

Chlorine is intermediate in reactivity between fluorine and bromine, and is one of the most reactive elements. Chlorine is a weaker oxidising agent than fluorine but a stronger one than bromine or iodine.

However, this trend is not shown in the bond energies because fluorine is singular due to its small size, low polarisability, and lack of low-lying d-orbitals available for bonding which chlorine has.

As another difference, chlorine has a significant chemistry in positive oxidation states while fluorine does not.

Chlorination often leads to higher oxidation states than bromination or iodination but lower oxidation states than fluorination. However, the kinetics of this reaction are unfavorable, and there is also a bubble overpotential effect to consider, so that electrolysis of aqueous chloride solutions evolves chlorine gas and not oxygen gas, a fact that is very useful for the industrial production of chlorine.

The simplest chlorine compound is hydrogen chloride , HCl, a major chemical in industry as well as in the laboratory, both as a gas and dissolved in water as hydrochloric acid. It is often produced by burning hydrogen gas in chlorine gas, or as a byproduct of chlorinating hydrocarbons.

Another approach is to treat sodium chloride with concentrated sulfuric acid to produce hydrochloric acid, also known as the "salt-cake" process: [36]. In the laboratory, hydrogen chloride gas may be made by drying the acid with concentrated sulfuric acid. Deuterium chloride, DCl, may be produced by reacting benzoyl chloride with heavy water D 2 O.

At room temperature, hydrogen chloride is a colourless gas, like all the hydrogen halides apart from hydrogen fluoride , since hydrogen cannot form strong hydrogen bonds to the larger electronegative chlorine atom; however, weak hydrogen bonding is present in solid crystalline hydrogen chloride at low temperatures, similar to the hydrogen fluoride structure, before disorder begins to prevail as the temperature is raised.

Beyond a mixture of HCl and H 2 O, the system separates completely into two separate liquid phases. Hydrochloric acid forms an azeotrope with boiling point Anhydrous hydrogen chloride is a poor solvent, only able to dissolve small molecular compounds such as nitrosyl chloride and phenol , or salts with very low lattice energies such as tetraalkylammonium halides. Solvolysis , ligand replacement reactions, and oxidations are well-characterised in hydrogen chloride solution: [38].

Nearly all elements in the periodic table form binary chlorides. The exceptions are decidedly in the minority and stem in each case from one of three causes: extreme inertness and reluctance to participate in chemical reactions the noble gases , with the exception of xenon in the highly unstable XeCl 2 and XeCl 4 ; extreme nuclear instability hampering chemical investigation before decay and transmutation many of the heaviest elements beyond bismuth ; and having an electronegativity higher than chlorine's oxygen and fluorine so that the resultant binary compounds are formally not chlorides but rather oxides or fluorides of chlorine.

Chlorination of metals with Cl 2 usually leads to a higher oxidation state than bromination with Br 2 when multiple oxidation states are available, such as in MoCl 5 and MoBr 3.

Chlorides can be made by reaction of an element or its oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with hydrochloric acid, and then dehydrated by mildly high temperatures combined with either low pressure or anhydrous hydrogen chloride gas. These methods work best when the chloride product is stable to hydrolysis; otherwise, the possibilities include high-temperature oxidative chlorination of the element with chlorine or hydrogen chloride, high-temperature chlorination of a metal oxide or other halide by chlorine, a volatile metal chloride, carbon tetrachloride , or an organic chloride.

For instance, zirconium dioxide reacts with chlorine at standard conditions to produce zirconium tetrachloride , and uranium trioxide reacts with hexachloropropene when heated under reflux to give uranium tetrachloride. The second example also involves a reduction in oxidation state , which can also be achieved by reducing a higher chloride using hydrogen or a metal as a reducing agent.

This may also be achieved by thermal decomposition or disproportionation as follows: [39]. Silver chloride is very insoluble in water and is thus often used as a qualitative test for chlorine. This is very unstable and has only been characterised by its electronic band spectrum when produced in a low-pressure discharge tube.

This reaction is conducted in the oxidising solvent arsenic pentafluoride. The three fluorides of chlorine form a subset of the interhalogen compounds, all of which are diamagnetic. Chlorine monofluoride ClF is extremely thermally stable, and is sold commercially in gram steel lecture bottles.

Its properties are mostly intermediate between those of chlorine and fluorine. It will react with many metals and nonmetals from room temperature and above, fluorinating them and liberating chlorine. It will also act as a chlorofluorinating agent, adding chlorine and fluorine across a multiple bond or by oxidation: for example, it will attack carbon monoxide to form carbonyl chlorofluoride, COFCl.

It will also react exothermically and violently with compounds containing —OH and —NH groups, such as water: [41]. It is one of the most reactive known chemical compounds, reacting with many substances which in ordinary circumstances would be considered chemically inert, such as asbestos , concrete, and sand. It explodes on contact with water and most organic substances. The list of elements it sets on fire is diverse, containing hydrogen , potassium , phosphorus , arsenic , antimony , sulfur , selenium , tellurium , bromine , iodine , and powdered molybdenum , tungsten , rhodium , iridium , and iron.

An impermeable fluoride layer is formed by sodium , magnesium , aluminium , zinc , tin , and silver , which may be removed by heating. When heated, even such noble metals as palladium , platinum , and gold are attacked and even the noble gases xenon and radon do not escape fluorination.

Nickel containers are usually used due to that metal's great resistance to attack by chlorine trifluoride, stemming from the formation of an unreactive nickel fluoride layer.

Its reaction with hydrazine to form hydrogen fluoride, nitrogen, and chlorine gases was used in experimental rocket motors, but has problems largely stemming from its extreme hypergolicity resulting in ignition without any measurable delay. Today, it is mostly used in nuclear fuel processing, to oxidise uranium to uranium hexafluoride for its enriching and to separate it from plutonium.

It is a very strong fluorinating agent, although it is still not as effective as chlorine trifluoride. Only a few specific stoichiometric reactions have been characterised. The product, chloryl fluoride , is one of the five known chlorine oxide fluorides.

ICSE Chemistry Question Paper 2009 Solved for Class 10

Why should a magnesium ribbon be cleaned before it is burnt in air? Ans: Magnesium is an very reactive metal. When stored, it reacts with oxygen to form a layer of magnesium oxide on its surface.

The questions posted on the site are solely user generated, Doubtnut has no ownership or control over the nature and content of those questions. Doubtnut is not responsible for any discrepancies concerning the duplicity of content over those questions. Study Materials.

Two Hours Answers to this Paper must be written on the paper provided separately. You will not be allowed to write during the first 15 minutes. This time is to be spent in reading the Question Paper. The time given at the head of this Paper is the time allowed for writing the answers. Section I is compulsory.

Sodium, aluminium, chlorine ,carbon. Find odd man out and give reason

These are except for hydrogen soft, shiny, low-melting, highly reactive metals, which tarnish when exposed to air. The name comes from the fact that when these metals or their oxides are dissolved in water, a basic alkaline solution results. Because the alkali metals are very reactive, they are seldom if ever found in their elemental form in nature, and are usually found as ionic compounds except for hydrogen. The alkali metals have only one valence electron in their highest-energy orbitals ns 1. In their respective periods, they are the largest elements and have the lowest ionization energies. Salts of the Group 1A elements tend to be extremely soluble in water. Because the alkali metal ions are relatively large compared to other ions from the same period , their charges densities are low, and they are easily separated from their anions and solvated by polar solvents like water. The alkali metals again, except for hydrogen react vigorously with water, producing the metal hydroxide, hydrogen gas, and heat. Heat plus hydrogen in an oxygen atmosphere is, of course, a very dangerous combination! Although hydrogen is placed at the top of Group 1A in most versions of the periodic table, it is very different from the other members of the alkali metal group.

Odd one out: Elements edition Quiz Stats

In a reactivity series, the most reactive element is placed at the top and the least reactive element at the bottom. More reactive metals have a greater tendency to lose electrons and form positive ions. A reactivity series of metals could include any elements. For example:. A good way to remember the order of a reactivity series of metals is to use the first letter of each one to make up a silly sentence.

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Chemical Reactions and Equations-NCERT Solutions

Chlorine is a chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number The second-lightest of the halogens , it appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between them. Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature.

Account Options Fazer login. Obter livro impresso. Comprar livros no Google Play Procure a maior eBookstore do mundo e comece a ler hoje na web, no tablet, no telefone ou eReader. Pustak Mahal Editorial Group. Pustak Mahal , 5 de abr. It is a common sentiment expressed by many students from time to time.

Carboxylic Acids. The carboxyl functional group that characterizes the carboxylic acids is unusual in that it is composed of two functional groups described earlier in this text. As may be seen in the formula on the right, the carboxyl group is made up of a hydroxyl group bonded to a carbonyl group. Other combinations of functional groups were described previously, and significant changes in chemical behavior as a result of group interactions were described e. In this case, the change in chemical and physical properties resulting from the interaction of the hydroxyl and carbonyl group are so profound that the combination is customarily treated as a distinct and different functional group. As with aldehydes, the carboxyl group must be located at the end of a carbon chain. In the IUPAC system of nomenclature the carboxyl carbon is designated 1, and other substituents are located and named accordingly. The characteristic IUPAC suffix for a carboxyl group is " oic acid ", and care must be taken not to confuse this systematic nomenclature with the similar common system.

A list of elements from most reactive to least reactive: potassium, sodium, lithium reactivity series of metals is to use the first letter of each one to make up a silly sentence. Note that aluminium can be difficult to place in the correct position in the It is useful to place carbon and hydrogen into the reactivity series because.

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